While we were visiting Samarai in the Milne Bay District (PNG) a couple of months ago we saw the memorial which appears on Tropical Territory today. Apparently there was quite a lot of conflict over it when it was erected, and couldn’t be placed anywhere else so it was eventually placed on Samarai even though there was no specific connection.
Mr Cassmob remembers his father saying the miners (why??) wanted to have the comment “killed by the missionaries” on the memorial and that the Robinson issue was about the killing of some “natives”. Now plainly this was all quite intriguing so I turned to my good friend Trove to see what it could tell me about the background event.
My Trove reading suggests that there were a number of complicating factors surrounding this event:
- In 1901 Australia became an independent federation and nation.
- In 1902 Papua, or the British Protectorate of New Guinea, had become the responsibility of Australia
- In 1905, it became the Territory of Papua.
- Australia’s federal election in December 1903.
The events we’re looking at straddle this time frame and affect how they was seen.
Early in 1904 Christopher Robinson, a Brisbane solicitor, was appointed acting Administrator and Judicial Officer of British New Guinea, pending the implementation of legislation formalising the Territory of Papua under Australian control. Soon afterwards Robinson set sail on the ship the Merrie England, to the Gulf Province (west of Port Moresby) where two missionaries, Rev James Chalmers and Rev OF Tomkins, had been massacred on Goaribari Island (now in the Gulf Province, PNG) in 1901. On the face of it this was not unreasonable, but in the event, the local people approached the ship, firing arrows from their canoes, apparently in retaliation for the arrest of some of the men believed to have taken part in the killing of the missionaries. Shots were fired from the ship and an undefined number of “natives” were killed. This “Goaribari incident”, as it was euphemistically called, occurred in March 1904. While one could hardly expect the ship’s crew to ignore being fired at, it appears that the response was ill-considered and due to panic.
Robinson’s reputation was under a very dark cloud as a Royal Commission of Enquiry was instigated, of which Judge Murray (presumably Sir Hubert Murray) was in charge. Shortly before the enquiry commenced, Christopher Robinson put a gun to his head and killed himself, leaving behind a note which was not released (according to the papers). It is through the reports of the enquiry that we learn that at least eight men were killed, three possibly by Robinson.
Perhaps the simple fact is that, with no prior experience of New Guinea, or of the risks associated with working there, he simply panicked and imagined himself massacred as had been the missionaries in 1901. This in no way excuses what happened, whether by him or by others, but he was also human, and perhaps in fear of his life after the decision to capture some of the locals who may/may not have been part of the original massacre.
When we lived in Papua in the 1970s, 70 years later, there were patrol officers who had encountered tribes meeting their first white men, and where cannibalism still occasionally occurred. From the local side they felt betrayed by what had initially seemed like a positive interaction with the Europeans. In short, a major conflict of culture and loss of judgement, with consequent loss of life.
Discussions around the event were very much focused on Australia’s image, and the need to see it as not condoning the hapless killing of the very people under its protection.
Christopher Robinson’s body was returned to Australia on board a boat accompanied by a missionary Mr Jekyll, who had been present at the killings, a coincidence which seems quite ironic to me.
The mystery of why the “miners” blamed the missionaries remains unknown, as does the question of why the memorial to Christopher Robinson is on Samarai Island many miles from where the “Goaribari incident” occurred, but, also ironically, not far from Killerton Island where missionaries had been cannibalised. It’s also ironic that it remains on an island which is now entirely settled by local Milne Bay people yet they tolerate its presence.
The full story behind this event would merit further investigation as well.
Some Further Reading
The Queenslander 28 May 1904
Northern Miner (Charters Towers, Qld) 23 June 1904
The Register (Adelaide, SA ), 24 June 1904.
The Register (Adelaide, SA) 14 September 1904 “The Merrie England began it”.
15 thoughts on “Trove Tuesday: Christopher Robinson”
Fascinating story Pauleen and what a traged. I’ve been musing on it, for a few hours, and wonder why ever Christopher Robinson’s memorial was placed in PNG and not his home town?
That’s an interesting thought Catherine -it hadn’t occurred to me. Perhaps they also had one there? It was a tragedy all round and coming from a largely urban background he probably just over-reacted and panicked. Easy enough to judge in hindsight. Based on the wording of the memorial I think it was saying that he was generally a good bloke, “so there!” Still no idea about the miners and Peter’s dad’s not around to ask. Must get him to ask his sister to see what she remembers.
ooohhh Pauleen… here I go off on a tangent AGAIN 😉 Fascinated by the mention of miners, by Peter’s dad, just had to do a quick google of mining + png + 1904 and up came the following site which I’ve just glanced at but looks to have some interesting info re: that period… happy sleuthing. http://www.mra.gov.pg/GeologyMining/MiningHistory.aspx
Now don’t blame me 😉 There were certainly mines in the islands of Milne Bay in those days, perhaps they were the ones that made the fuss about putting the memorial up. Probably more Trove-ing might find a reference to it, but not today. Get thee behind me…..
Dear Pauleen. I am delighted to say your blog has given me so much pleasure over the eyar, I have nominated you for blog of the Year Award 2012. See my posting http://scotsue-familyhistoryfun.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/was-over-moon-to-hear-from-catherine-at.html. Enjoy your stars!
Susan, thank you so much for your kind generosity and words. As you well know it’s such a treat when readers follow our blogs and make comments…their time is very precious.
I’m on my way out so don’t have time to read the articles but seems to be a sad situation all around. Saw the memorial on the other page. Perhaps more later after reading the articles.
Thanks Kristin…contentious, ill judged but somehow I still feel sorry for him as well as for those killed. A no-win situation and echoes of the times.
Pauleen, You continue to amaze me with your thoroughly researched posts. Are you considering a book or longer journal article on this topic?
Thanks Jill. I guess it would make an interesting journal article, but, not on the radar of this little black duck right now 😉
Great post, Pauleen, but isn’t it the way that so many more questions are raised? I imagine there are many undiscovered stories in PNG. As we’ve previously discussed, I’ve also a family connection to the nation. One day I’ll actually get around to researching my grandfather’s story!
Perhaps I should pester you until you get to it 😉
Yikes! Me and my big mouth 🙂
Don’t worry, I promise not to nag;-) There are too many things I haven’t done as well.